What are the three conditions where Japan can exercise its right to collective self-defense?


The three conditions were decided by the Abe government in July 2014 when they approved a cabinet decision to change the interpretation of Article 9. They are:

  1. There is an armed attack against a country that has a close relationship with Japan, and the situation threatens the existence of Japan and presents a clear danger to citizens’ lives, freedom and happiness.2015-05-20-10-51-091-e1432166125553-2
  2. There is no other alternative but to use force to protect the sovereignty of Japan and its citizens.2015-05-20-11-05-43-e1432166236509-2
  3. The use of forces must be confined to the minimum necessary.2015-05-20-10-49-14-e1432166043134-1

( Source: Tokyo Shimbun May 15, 2015).

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